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Founded in the year , and established as a kaupstad or trading place in by Harald Hardrada , the city was elevated to a bishopric in and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around Personal unions with Denmark from to and again from to and with Sweden from to reduced its influence.
After being destroyed by a fire in , during the reign of King Christian IV , a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour.
It was established as a municipality formannskapsdistrikt on 1 January The city's name was spelled Kristiania between and by state and municipal authorities, respectively.
In the city was renamed Oslo. Oslo is the economic and governmental centre of Norway. The city is also a hub of Norwegian trade, banking, industry and shipping.
It is an important centre for maritime industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers and maritime insurance brokers.
Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. As of 1 July , the municipality of Oslo had a population of ,, while the population of the city's urban area was , As of 1 January , the municipality of Oslo had a population of , To the north and east, wide forested hills Marka rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre.
The urban municipality bykommune of Oslo and county [ fylke ] of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated.
The city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January see formannskapsdistrikt. It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in The rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January and simultaneously transferred from Akershus county to Oslo county.
Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county. As defined in January by the city council  [note]. The old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates.
The suburb called Oslo was eventually included in the city proper. In the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" literally "the Old town" to avoid confusion.
The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo gate Oslo street  and Oslo hospital. The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate.
Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna.
Hallvard , with his attributes, the millstone and arrows , with a naked woman at his feet. He is seated on a throne with lion decorations, which at the time was also commonly used by the Norwegian kings.
According to the Norse sagas , Oslo was founded around by Harald Hardrada. It has been regarded as the capital city since the reign of Haakon V of Norway — , the first king to reside permanently in the city.
A century later, Norway was the weaker part in a personal union with Denmark, and Oslo's role was reduced to that of provincial administrative centre, with the monarchs residing in Copenhagen.
The fact that the University of Oslo was founded as late as had an adverse effect on the development of the nation. Oslo was destroyed several times by fire, and after the fourteenth calamity, in , Christian IV of Denmark and Norway ordered it rebuilt at a new site across the bay, near Akershus Castle and given the name Christiania.
Long before this, Christiania had started to establish its stature as a centre of commerce and culture in Norway. The part of the city built starting in is now often called Kvadraturen because of its orthogonal layout in regular, square blocks.
Many landmarks were built in the 19th century, including the Royal Palace — , Storting building the Parliament — , the University , National Theatre and the Stock Exchange.
Among the world-famous artists who lived here during this period were Henrik Ibsen and Knut Hamsun the latter was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.
In , Christiania also overtook Bergen and became the most populous city in the country. In the city was renamed Kristiania.
The original name of Oslo was restored in The churches and abbeys became major owners of large tracts of land, which proved important for the city's economic development, especially before the Black Death.
He started building Akershus Fortress and was also the first king to reside permanently in the city, which helped to make Oslo the capital of Norway.
In the end of the 12th century, Hanseatic League traders from Rostock moved into the city and gained major influence in the city.
The Black Death came to Norway in and, like other cities in Europe, the city suffered greatly. The churches' earnings from their land also dropped so much that the Hanseatic traders dominated the city's foreign trade in the 15th century.
Over the years, fire destroyed major parts of the city many times, as many of the city's buildings were built entirely of wood.
After the last fire in , which lasted for three days, Christian IV of Denmark decided that the old city should not be rebuilt again. His men built a network of roads in Akershagen near Akershus Castle.
He demanded that all citizens should move their shops and workplaces to the newly built city of Christiania. The transformation of the city went slowly for the first hundred years.
In the 18th century, after the Great Northern War , the city's economy boomed with shipbuilding and trade. The strong economy transformed Christiania into a trading port.
In the former provincial town of Christiania became the capital of the independent Kingdom of Norway, in a personal union with Sweden.
Several state institutions were established and the city's role as a capital initiated a period of rapidly increasing population.
The government of this new state needed buildings for its expanding administration and institutions. Large areas of the surrounding Aker municipality were incorporated in , an At that time the area called Oslo now Gamlebyen or Old Town was a village or suburb outside the city borders east of Aker river.
Christiania expanded its industry from , most importantly around Akerselva. There was a spectacular building boom during the last decades of the 19th century, with many new apartment buildings and renewal of the city center, but the boom collapsed in City Hall was constructed in the former slum area of Vika , from — The municipality of Aker was incorporated into Oslo in , and suburbs were developed, such as Lambertseter from Aker Brygge was constructed on the site of the former shipyard Akers Mekaniske Verksted , from — The name of city and municipality was Kristiania until 1 January when the name was changed to Oslo.
Oslo was the name of an eastern suburb and the site of the city centre until the devastating fire. Christian, king of Denmark, ordered a new city built with his own name.
Oslo remained a poor suburb outside the city border. In the early s it was argued that a Danish king was inappropriate as the name of the capital of independent Norway.
In the Norway terror attacks , Oslo was hit by a bomb blast that ripped through the Government quarter , damaging several buildings including the building that houses the Office of the Prime Minister.
Eight people were killed in the bomb attack. Map of medieval Oslo by Amund Helland. Port of Christiania c. Oslo occupies an arc of land at the northernmost end of the Oslofjord.
The fjord , which is nearly bisected by the Nesodden peninsula opposite Oslo, lies to the south; in all other directions Oslo is surrounded by green hills and mountains.
Oslo has lakes, the largest being Maridalsvannet 3. This is also a main source of drinking water for large parts of Oslo. Although Eastern Norway has a number of rivers, none of these flow into the ocean at Oslo.
Instead Oslo has two smaller rivers: The waterfalls in Akerselva gave power to some of the first modern industry of Norway in the s.
Later in the century, the river became the symbol of the stable and consistent economic and social divide of the city into an East End and a West End ; the labourers' neighbourhoods lie on both sides of the river, and the divide in reality follows Uelands street a bit further west.
River Alna flows through Groruddalen, Oslo's major suburb and industrial area. Although the city's population is small compared to most European capitals, it occupies an unusually large land area, of which two-thirds are protected areas of forests, hills and lakes.
Its boundaries encompass many parks and open areas , giving it an airy and green appearance. Oslo has an Oceanic climate Cfb  with warm summers and cold winters.
However, due to isotherm changes in colder winters, it is also reasonable for Oslo to be classified as a Humid continental climate Dfb. Oslo has a significant amount of rainfall during the year.
This is true even for the driest month. July was the warmest month ever recorded with hr monthly mean temperature at The climate table below is for —, while extremes except average annual maximum and minimum temperatures also includes earlier stations such as the Observatory downtown.
Recent decades have seen warming, and 8 of the 12 monthly record lows are from before , while the most recent is the November record low from May saw hotter than average temperatures throughout the month.
Oslo with neighbouring Sandvika-Asker is built in a horseshoe shape on the shores of the Oslofjord and limited in most directions by hills and forests.
As a result, any point within the city is relatively close to the forest. There are two major forests bordering the city: The altitude at sea level is metres.
The water is in a popular hiking area. Near the water itself, it is great for barbecues, swimming, beach volleyball and other activities.
The municipality operates eight public swimming pools. Another in that size is the outdoor pool Frognerbadet. Oslo's cityscape is being redeveloped as a modern city with various access-points, an extensive metro-system with a new financial district and a cultural city.
Oslo's architecture is very diverse. The architect Carl Frederik Stanley — , who was educated in Copenhagen , spent some years in Norway around the turn of the 19th century.
He did minor works for wealthy patrons in and around Oslo, but his major achievement was the renovation of the Oslo Katedralskole , completed in When Christiania was made capital of Norway in , there were practically no buildings suitable for the many new government institutions.
An ambitious building program was initiated, but realised very slowly because of economic constraints. The first major undertaking was the Royal Palace , designed by Hans Linstow and built between and Linstow also planned Karl Johans gate , the avenue connecting the Palace and the city, with a monumental square halfway to be surrounded by buildings for University , the Parliament Storting and other institutions.
Only the university buildings were realised according to this plan. Christian Heinrich Grosch , one of the first architects educated completely within Norway, designed the original building for the Oslo Stock Exchange — , the local branch of the Bank of Norway , Christiania Theatre — , and the first campus for the University of Oslo — For the university buildings, he sought the assistance of the renowned German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel.
German architectural influence persisted in Norway, and many wooden buildings followed the principles of Neoclassicism.
In Oslo, the German architect Alexis de Chateauneuf designed Trefoldighetskirken , the first neo-gothic church, completed by von Hanno in A number of landmark buildings, particularly in Oslo, were built in the Functionalist style better known in the US and Britain as Modernist , the first being Skansen restaurant — by Lars Backer , demolished in Backer also designed the restaurant at Ekeberg, which opened in Kunstnernes Hus art gallery by Gudolf Blakstad and Herman Munthe-Kaas still shows the influence of the preceding classicist trend of the s.
The redevelopment of Oslo Airport by the Aviaplan consortium at Gardermoen, which opened in , was Norway's largest construction project to date.
Art gallery of Astrup Fearnley Museum. Oslo is the capital of Norway, and as such is the seat of Norway's national government.
Most government offices, including that of the Prime Minister , are gathered at Regjeringskvartalet , a cluster of buildings close to the national Parliament, the Storting.
Constituting both a municipality and a county of Norway, the city of Oslo is represented in the Storting by nineteen members of parliament. The combined municipality and county of Oslo has had a parliamentary system of government since The supreme authority of the city is the City Council Bystyret , which currently has 59 seats.
Representatives are popularly elected every four years. The City Council has five standing committees , each having its own areas of responsibility.
The largest parties in the City Council after the elections are the Labour Party and the Conservatives, with 20 and 19 representatives respectively.
The Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City Council and the highest ranking representative of the city. This used to be the most powerful political position in Oslo, but following the implementation of parliamentarism, the mayor has had more of a ceremonial role, similar to that of the President of the Storting at the national level.
The current Mayor of Oslo is Marianne Borgen. Since the local elections of , the city government has been a coalition of the Labour Party, the Green Party and the Socialist Left.
Based mostly on support from the Red Party, the coalition maintains a workable majority in the City Council.
The Governing Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City government. The post was created with the implementation of parliamentarism in Oslo and is similar to the role of the prime minister at the national level.
The current governing mayor is Raymond Johansen. Oslo has a varied and strong economy and was ranked number one among European large cities in economic potential in the fDi Magazine report European Cities of the Future Oslo is an important centre of maritime knowledge in Europe and is home to approximately companies and 8, employees within the maritime sector.
Some of them are the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers, and insurance brokers. Close to 6, ships dock at the Port of Oslo annually with a total of 6 million tonnes of cargo and over five million passengers.
Oslo is one of the most expensive cities in the world. Meanwhile, prices on goods and services remain some of the highest of any city.
Oslo hosts of the largest companies in Norway. Within the ranking of Europe's largest cities ordered by their number of companies Oslo is in fifth position.
A whole group of oil and gas companies is situated in Oslo. According to a report compiled by Swiss bank UBS in the month of August ,  Oslo and London were the world's most expensive cities.
Oslo is a compact city. It is easy to move around by public transportation and rentable city bikes are accessible to all, all over the city centre.
In , Oslo received The European Sustainable City Award and in Reader's Digest ranked Oslo as number two on a list of the world's greenest, most liveable cities.
The level of education and productivity in the workforce is high in Norway. Nearly half of those with education at tertiary level in Norway live in the Oslo region, placing it among Europe's top three regions in relation to education.
In , the total workforce in the greater Oslo region 5 counties numbered 1,, people. The greater Oslo region has several higher educational institutions and is home to more than 73, students.
The University of Oslo is the largest institution for higher education in Norway with 27, students and 7, employees in total. Oslo has a large and varied number of cultural attractions , which include several buildings containing artwork from Edvard Munch and various other international artists but also several Norwegian artists.
Several world-famous writers have either lived or been born in Oslo. Examples are Knut Hamsun and Henrik Ibsen. The government has recently invested large amounts of money in cultural installations, facilities, buildings and festivals in the City of Oslo.
The area contains a large number of parks and seasites and many museums. Oslo hosts the annual Oslo Freedom Forum, a conference described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum.
As of March six Oslo restaurants were mentioned in the Michelin Guide. Maaemo is the only Norwegian restaurant ever to have been awarded three Michelin stars.
Statholdergaarden, Kontrast, and Galt each have one star. Only two restaurants in Oslo have a BIB gourmand mention: Restaurant Eik and Smalhans.
Oslo houses several major museums and galleries. The Munch Museum contains The Scream and other works by Edvard Munch , who donated all his work to the city after his death.
The outdoor museum contains authentic old buildings from all parts of Norway, including a Stave Church. The Vigeland Museum located in the large Frogner Park , is free to access and contains over sculptures by Gustav Vigeland including an obelisk and the Wheel of Life.
This statue is very well known as an icon in the city. The Oslo City Museum holds a permanent exhibition about the people in Oslo and the history of the city.
The National Museum holds and preserves, exhibits and promotes public knowledge about Norway's most extensive collection of art.
The Nobel Peace Center is an independent organisation opened on 11 June by the King Harald V as part of the celebrations to mark Norway's centenary as an independent country.
The building is mainly used as a communication centre. A large number of festivals are held in Oslo, such as Oslo Jazz festival, a six-day jazz festival which has been held annually in August for the past 25 years.
The Oslo World Music Festival showcases people who are stars in their own country but strangers in Norway. The Oslo Chamber Music Festival is held in August every year and world-class chambers and soloists gather in Oslo to perform at this festival.
The World Cup Biathlon in Holmenkollen is held every year and here male and female competitors compete against each other in Sprint, Pursuit and Mass Start disciplines.
Rikard Nordraak , composer of the Norwegian national anthem, was born in Oslo in Oslo has hosted the Eurovision Song Contest twice, in and The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway and is situated between the royal palace and the parliament building, Stortinget.
There are two houses, together containing over seats. The building cost million euro to build and took five years to build and is known for being the first Opera House in the world to let people walk on the roof of the building.
The foyer and the roof are also used for concerts as well as the three stages. Most great Norwegian authors have lived in Oslo for some period in their life.
The playwright Henrik Ibsen is probably the most famous Norwegian author. The Ibsen Quotes project completed in is a work of art consisting of 69 Ibsen quotations in stainless steel lettering which have been set into the granite sidewalks of the city's central streets.
The main office of the national broadcasting company NRK is located at Marienlyst in Oslo, near Majorstuen , and NRK also has regional services via both radio and television.
There is also a variety of specialty publications and smaller media companies. A number of magazines are produced in Oslo. Oslo is home to the Holmenkollen National Arena and Holmenkollbakken , the country's main biathlon and Nordic skiing venues.
It hosts annual world cup tournaments, including the Holmenkollen Ski Festival. Oslo hosted the Biathlon World Championships in , , , and Oslo is the home of several football clubs in the Norwegian league system.
Each year, the international youth football tournament Norway Cup is held on Ekebergsletta and other places in the city. Due to the cold climate and proximity to major forests bordering the city, skiing is a popular recreational activity in Oslo.
The Tryvann Ski Resort is the most used ski resort in Norway. Manglerud Star is another Oslo-team who play in the top league. Bjerke Travbane is the main venue for harness racing in the country.
Oslo Spektrum is used for large ice hockey and handball matches. Oslo was bidding to host the Winter Olympics , but later withdrew on 2 October Oslo Police District is Norway's largest police district with over 2, employees.
Over 1, of those are police officers, nearly police lawyers and civilian employees. PST is also located in the Oslo District. PST is a security agency which was established in and is one of the non-secret agencies in Norway.
Oslo police stated that the capital is one of Europe's safest. Statistics have shown that crime in Oslo is on the rise, [ when? Here you see an image of a map of the world, each geo-location coordinate translated into its corresponding solar angle.
That not only makes collecting solar energy more efficient, it is also great for reducing energy loss inside your home.
Like many things we own or use everyday, sensors are found everywhere. Placing small sensors within the print material could enable us to print a house that could relay data about weather, light, and temperature.
This information could be used to alter and update resources used by the house in real time. If your organisation would like to publish something about the 3D Print Canalhouse, we can provide you a neat press kit.
Please request the password by sending a mail to info[at]3dprintcanalhouse. DUS offers internships to highly motivated interns with excellent parametric design skills for a minimum period of 6 months.
Applicants must excel in Rhino and Grasshopper and have a great sense of building product design and affinity for 3D printing and innovative techniques.
How does digitalization and additive manufacturing disrupt the building industry? Could 3D-printing How does digitalization and additive manufacturing disrupt the building industry?
Could 3D-printing and the internet change the way we make things forever? Can we in the near future e-mail buildings to each other?
And what if we can print a building, shredder it, and then print something new with the same material? How will this have a positive effect on the environment and the economy?
And how will it influence our notion of craftsmanship? There are many questions the 3D Print Canal House brings to mind.
To give a better understanding of the concepts and ideas behind the 3D Print Canal House, DUS architects frequently gives inspirational lectures and presentations.
It is also just a short bike ride or a 15 minute walk away from Amsterdam Central Station. You will approach the main entrance Asterweg from the north, with the 3D Print Canal House on your right.
You will approach the main entrance Asterweg 49 from the north, with the 3D Print Canal House on your right. From Amsterdam Central Station, by foot or bicycle: Cross the road, and you will then see the ferries.
After leaving the ferry, turn left towards EYE film museum the futuristic white building. After meters, turn right into the Grasweg and proceed to the sign of the Hyperion Lyceum.
From the Hyperion Lyceum, take the first block on the left to the Asterweg. At the end of the Asterweg, after about meters, you will find the main entrance Asterweg with the 3D Print Canal House on your left.
Take the ferry to the Distelweg and follow the Distelweg. After about meters, turn right to the Asterweg. Go straight forward and you will find the main entrance Asterweg with the 3D Print Canal House on your right.
Second XL 3D printer is in the making. Together with construction studio Fiction Factory we are assembling and installing the XL 3D printer on the building site.
We are super excited to start working with it and experience its upgraded features! The second silver container can be spotted next to the first XL 3D printer on the site.
With a similar shiny silver appearance to the first printer, it doesn't give much away about its improved features.
But beauty comes from within: And we never have to climb the steep stair to refill the printer anymore. Moreover, we can upload files when and wherever we want.
XL 3D printer 2. We recently broke our speed record with the first XL 3D printer. That is the size of your water bottle every second.
Soon we will be able to print not just twice as fast with two printers, but more than three times as fast!
Less than one year ago we moved the XL 3D printer to its current location. Now Fiction Factory is building up the second XL 3D printer - soon we'll be able to print more, better and faster!
By attaching two powerful fans to the printer head of the XL 3D printer we are again able to print faster!
This especially benefits the parts of pieces that have a small surface area. Before, we had to slow down the printer with these pieces because the track it has to follow is smaller, thus leaving less time for the previous layer to harden.
The fans quicken the hardening process of the previous layer, allowing us to print faster and more accurate. With the update of its engine, the XL 3D printer is now printing at more than three times its initial speed!
Since we didn't want to climb the steep stairs anymore to refill the printer every 20 minutes or so, we've printed an enlargement of the container that holds the printing material.
Now It won't be long before we can 3D print on site! The canal house design continues to evolve and our tests continue to grow as we break the 2.
We had a nice analogue presentation and discussion about the effects and future possibilities of 3D printing. Adding virtual layers to our canal house!
We had a very nice meeting with augmented reality artist Sander Veenhof, testing the merging of 3D printing and augmented reality.
The KamerMaker has been printing during the recent snow period! We gave them a little demonstration. The KamerMaker has been open for almost 4 weeks now and we wanted to give you a update on the printing research and development.
The design for the extruder is based on an Ultimaker , however it accepts 3 filaments of plastic rather than one. The extruder was assembled from 3d printed parts which were printed on an Ultimaker and laser cut wood pieces.
The output of the extruder is not enough for XXL prints 2m x 2m x 3. Last Friday, we planned on printing a 1. Since the opening we have been receiving a steady stream of visitors at the KamerMaker.
Many people have asked when and how they can print their own design on the KamerMaker, however we are not ready for that at this time.
The plan is that over the next few months we will continue to test different extruders and really perfect the technique. After we have successfully printed several pieces and feel the print quality is up to par, then we will open up the KamerMaker to other designers.
Until then, everyone is welcome to stop by the KamerMaker to follow the live testing and experimenting. The XL 3D printer is officially up and running!
We had great weather for the opening and there was a large and diverse turnout. We have to thank all the collaborators for their hard and dedication to the project.
Feel free to stop by to see the KamerMaker in action. Stay tuned for more details…. This is still a rough prototype, but we have got some nice results from it.
One of the most exciting opportunities is that we can begin to easily mix colors in our prints. We attached the extruder to the CNC milling machine at Protospace to do some full scale testing.
For the past couple of weeks we have been preparing the garden space in front of our office for the delivery of the shipping container next week!
Today the concrete pads were delivered which will be used as the base for the shipping container. Fiction Factory is finishing up installing the facade, and next week the XYZ gantry will be installed at Fiction Factory.
The KamerMaker is really starting to take shape at Fiction Factory, because last week the stainless steel panels arrived and the installation has begun.
We are hoping that the facade will be installed by the end of this week. Unfortunately, everyone will have to wait until September for the big reveal of the mirror facade, which is when we will take off the protective plastic.
Next step is printing all the wind mills for the facade! We would like to share the final design for the facade of the KamerMaker which is currently being fabricated.
The container will be clad with perforated stainless steel panels, which will have 3d printed objects inserted into the perforations. So, for those who may be interested in Ultimaker, own an Ultimaker, or is interested in the KamerMaker are invited to this event and help us print our facade.
Despite the unforgiving weather yesterday, we had a great turnout for the Ultimaker meetup at our office.
There was a very energetic and collaborative atmosphere where attendees helped us 3d print wind turbines for the facade, offered their advice about the wind turbine design, and engaged in some nice discussions about the design of the KamerMaker.
Thanks for everyone who attended and we look forward to continuing to be engaged in this collaborative community. We would like to invite you to an fun event next weekend Sunday, June 17th that we will be taking part in.
DUS will participating in a birdhouse building workshop where kids will be able to design and 3D print their own birdhouse! Our 3D printing workshop will be taking place on the site where the KamerMaker will be installed next month.
So, if you are interested in attending the event, you can find our more information here: Every six weeks, Ultimaker users meet at different locations to discuss new developments, test new machines, troubleshoot problems, and present ideas related to Ulimaker.
We attended this meetup to present the KamerMaker to the community and present our idea for the next meetup. The facade for the KamerMaker will be made out of perforated stainless steel where we will insert 3d printed pieces into the perforations.
We would like to print small wind turbines which can generate enough energy to power an LED. We are currently testing different designs and will publish those soon.
So, we would like to open up an invitation to anyone who may be interested in Ultimaker, owns an Ultimaker, or is interested in the KamerMaker to attend the event and help us print our facade.
The idea is that people will bring their Ultimakers to the Open Coop, DUS will provide designs to printed and print material 3mm filament.
Keep following the blog for more information and details about this event. Is the KamerMaker a utopic dream?
It was great for us think about the KamerMaker within this context and project its implications to architecture and construction. We look forward to continuing this discussion with the public when the KamerMaker is up and running!
We recently purchased a shipping container which will be used as the main frame for the KamerMaker. It is currently at Fiction Factory where they first dismantled it and are now rebuilding it.
However, for the KamerMaker we would like to use the container frame in a unconventional manner by tilting it up vertically rather than horizontally, so that we will be able to print rooms that are 3 meters tall!
Today was a big day for us because the container was flipped up vertically for the first time. It was great to see the new frame and understand how big our prints are going to be!
We recently visited an extruder manufacturer to continue our research into how extruders work and how to create one.
We tested several different sizes and types of extruders to see which one would fit our application. We created our first full scale full print!
We have been working at Protospace for the past month to create and test a full scale plastic extruder. Last week we finally got the extruder up and working , so we atttached it to the CNC milling machine to see what it could make.
Even though it works, this is just the beginning and we have many more tests to perform. At our last design meeting we discussed our updated facade design with Fiction Factory and how we can develop a plastic extruder with Joris from EPMD.
Look at the shipment that we received last week…this container will be the base for the KamerMaker! We had some good discussions and everyone is really excited to see the KamerMaker working soon.
We would like thank everyone who came by on Saturday to visit the launch party! It was great to talk and share our ideas about the project with experts and non-experts in 3D printing.
We received nice feedback from many of the visitors which we hope to apply to the project. Today, we are putting the finishing touches on a scale model of the XL 3D printer for the Object Rotterdam exhibit.
Here are is sneak peek of the model…. It allows you to 1. It allows you to directly translate a digital file into a physical product.
What better way to do this than by 3D printing an entire house? The canal house is a symbol of Amsterdam. When the canal belt was built years ago, Amsterdam was a prime example of innovation.
Each canal house can house several functions, such as trade, storage, living, craft, and each canal house is richly ornamented and unique. A canal house is recognizable and attractive.
It is interesting to investigate what this traditional archetype can be in a 21st century context. One great advantage of 3D printing over traditional building techniques such as prefabricated concrete is the possibilities of using a high level of detail and ornament and variation.
That means the process goes straight from the raw material to the final product, thus eliminating waste. There are no transport costs, as designs can simply be transferred digitally and printed locally.
This also implies that when 3D printing is used widely in each part of the world, it will no longer be cheaper to have things produced in countries like China or Bangladesh as opposed to the Netherlands.
Everyone can just produce everything in their own local context. In terms of disadvantages, it is obviously a huge challenge to create a building that complies with all the current building regulations.
There is the question of insulation, fireproofing, wind loads, foundations…these, as well as the possible materials to print with using this printer are all things that are being researched and investigated.
The XL 3D printer works in exactly the same way as the Ultimaker, the small desktop 3D printer, as it is simply an upscaled version. A G-code is a file that slices a 3D model into layers.
This file programs the printer to move along a path that is optimal for that design, layer by layer.
We print with plastic in the form of granulate which enters an extruder via a funnel. In the extruder the granulate is heated the material melts at degrees Celsius and pressed together to a homogeneous liquid.
This is brought to the printer head by a heated tube. The printer head extrudes the melted material along the programmed path on the X and Y axes and when finished moves up one step along the Z axis.
This is fairly similar to a normal printer, only with one more direction, which allows objects to be printed layer by layer.
We are currently printing with bioplastics. The granulate that goes into the XL 3D printer is called Macromelt, a type of industrial glue Hotmelt developed by Henkel.
It melts at degrees Celsius. We aim to print with a material that is sustainable, of biological origin, melts at a relatively low temperature, and of course is sturdy and stable.
We are also researching the possibilities of printing with recycled materials: Architecture that influences the public domain using scale 1: DUS architects is collaborating with lots of important partners who invest in the project with knowledge and means.
Heijmans is researching what new construction techniques are needed for 3D printing buildings. The Municipality of Amsterdam investigates the effect of the digital maker-industries on regulations and opportunities for employment.
Check our website www. The project is partially funded by the municipality of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Fund for the Arts and the DOEN Foundation, and partially by the contributions of our partners.
A lot of the sponsorship the 3D Print Canal House gets is in natura, through contributing knowledge or materials. In fact, the 3D Print Canal House is one big collaboration project, in which everybody shares and gets a share.
That is impossible to say since all of the materials we use have never been on the market for this purpose. At the end of the research trajectory, we hope to be able to give an accurate estimate of what it takes to 3D print a house.
The goal is to create a cost-effective building technique for building sustainable and comfortable houses.
The 3D Print Canal House is a 3 year research and development project. This does not mean that the expected time it will take to 3D print a building in the future will be 3 years.
The aim for the use of 3D printing in architecture is to build faster compared to traditional building techniques.
Within the 3 years research project of the 3D print Canal House, DUS architects is building the Canal House and by doing so building up new knowledge for this purpose and sharing this with the community through the website and expo center.
Most likely it will be a public building. We hope that the 3D Print Canal House will become a hub for innovation and new production techniques and materials for the building industry.
And of course that many more 3D printed buildings will pop up around the globe! The initiators, designers and builders DUS architects are the client: The project involves many different industries, disciplines and parties tied together by a common goal.
More importantly, the process is being shown to the public not only the successes but also the possible failures it will encounter!
It is a production technique that is becoming more and more widely available. The great thing is that 3D printing can easily create objects or parts of objects that are custom fit and have a high level of detail and variety.
The 3D Print Canal House is a pioneering example and the first house that is being printed on the spot with the largest portable 3D printer. However, there are quite a few other initiatives on a similar large scale around right now, and chances are there will be more and more over the next months and years.
A different technique is developed by Enrico Din I in Italy using first a layer of sand and immediately after a layer of binder glue - turning the sand into a solid concrete like object.
Dirk van der Kooij in Zaandam produces interior objects like chairs and vases with a FDM like printing technique using recycled plastics.
On a smaller scale 3D printing is used in the medical industry, machinery, prototyping, jewelry, art, furniture, and many more.
Would you like to start 3D printing yourself? Visit open fablabs like Protospace or i-Fabrica in the Netherlands. If you would like to have your digital model 3D printed by a third party upload your model on one of these websites: Your 3D printed object will be shipped right to your home!
There is plenty of information on 3D printing to find on the internet. An example of an easy to read overview on 3D printing can be found here.
But the best way to learn more is of course to visit! This bridges the gap between designer, client and builder and makes architecure truly architecture personal.
New custom-made interiors for excisting buildings for instance. Just imagine you 3D scan an building structure. No labourous timberwork on site, no mess..
At the 3D Print Canal House expo site, you'll get access to audio tour that you can listen to on your smart phone using a QR code scanner.
Here you can download the auditotour. To do this you need a password, which you can ask for at the 3D Print Canal House front desk.
At the 3D Print Canal House, we offer you the possibility to learn more about the project and to speak. At the 3D Print Canal House, we offer you the possibility to learn more about the project and to speak to one of the enthusiastic DUS employees.
Presentations August 18, Software tools and global online user interface development 2. Smart parametric design and engineering 3.
Development of XL 3D printers and print network 4. Development of new bio-based, sustainable and recyclable materials and product innovation The house is made of many printed elements.
Press Coverage December 11, Construction technique Last update over a year ago. Click System June 10, News Last update over a year ago.